Note to self: accessing LVM volumes from live CD

If you have a Linux machine with LVM volumes on it, and you need to boot it from a live CD (for example SysRescueCD) and you wonder where your volumes are, just issue (in an LVM enabled system, of course)

# vgchange -a y

and your volumes will be available under /dev/$VOLUME-GROUP-NAME or under /dev/mapper


mii-tool is deprecated, use ethtool

Title says it all. If you want to check (or set) your ethernet NIC configuration or status in Linux, people used to use mii-tools. But there’s a lot more powerful and modern tool that obsoletes it: ethtool
You can install it with your favourite package manager, if it’s not already present in your system.
In Debian/Ubuntu, you can issue
# aptitude install ethtool

Here it is an example:

# ethtool eth0
Settings for eth0:
Supported ports: [ TP ]
Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full
Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Half 1000baseT/Full
Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
Speed: 100Mb/s
Duplex: Full
Port: Twisted Pair
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
Supports Wake-on: g
Wake-on: d
Current message level: 0x000000ff (255)
Link detected: yes

X-Cache and X-Cache-Lookup headers explained

Ok, maybe you have no problems while dealing with web caches but I (and my workmates as well :P ) do, so here it goes this post.

Let imagine you are behind a classical transparent proxy on port 80 and you’re visiting a web site running an internal web cache (so, another proxy). If you inspect your HTTP headers looking for some info, you can find two lines that look like this, given domain.tld as the local website and proxy.local as your internal transparent proxy.

X-Cache HIT from proxy.domain.tld, MISS from proxy.local
X-Cache-Lookup HIT from proxy.domain.tld:3128, MISS from proxy.local:3128

What does this mean? That this is the first time you visit that website (MISS from proxy.local) and that their proxy has a valid copy of the page in its cache (X-Cache HIT proxy.domain.tld). I’ll explain X-Cache-Lookup meaning later

X-Cache MISS from proxy.domain.tld, MISS from proxy.local
X-Cache-Lookup HIT from proxy.domain.tld:3128, HIT from proxy.local:3128

Now, we’ve just refreshed the page (F5, Ctrl+R, you name it) but wait… what’s happening? It seems both proxies are not serving any page, and we’ve got two mysterious HITs in Cache-Lookup. Well, it’s very simple. We are not counting another level of cache. The browser web cache. So, the page now is not pulled at all from the net, instead Firefox (or your web browser of choice) is using it’s own cache to show the page, so we’ve got two MISSes in X-Cache but nonetheless both proxies are telling us that they would send the cache copy if asked. So, if you’re debugging your proxy system, it means it’s working correctly.

Now, what if we empty Firefox’s cache ??
Here it is:

X-Cache MISS from proxy.domain.tld, HIT from proxy.local
X-Cache-Lookup HIT from proxy.domain.tld:3128, HIT from proxy.local:3128

Our transparent proxy has got the page we need so it sends it to us (HIT from proxy.local), the remote proxy doesn’t need to do anything and both could send the page in case we want.

Although it could seem complicated, once you get it it’s very very simple, and you can easily nest more and more cache levels.

Apache, mod_rewrite and multiples RewriteCond

If you don’t kown Apache’s mod_rewrite, then you should, because it’s a very nice and flexible piece of software when you need to do URL mangling and L7 HTTP proxy. You cand do all sort of redirections, set cookies based on data like incoming URL, browser version etc or even set an environment variable with a value matching a regexp pattern.

You can find on the net very good tutorials about mod_rewrite, so I won’t waste your bandwith with a worse explication… anyway, today I want to share with you a little tip I found while working with mod_rewrite.

Imagine you need to write a rule involving two or more RewriteCond, and you want to use RewriteCond’s pattern matching backreferences in your rule (with %1, %2 … %N). Well, you have to keep in mind that you can use a backreference only from the LAST RewriteCond you have used. Example:

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} (.*)\domain\.tld
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(css|images|js)/
RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://www.domain.tld/%1/static/$1 [L]

At a first glance, if the original URI is


then the rewrited URI should be something like


but that’s not true, because mod_rewrite is evaluating only the last RewriteCond! So, eventually the URL will be


that’s not what we (or at least I) were expecting. The solution, in this case, is to join the REQUEST_URI condition with the RewriteRule:

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} (.*)\domain\.tld
RewriteRule ^/(css|images|js)/(.*) http://www.domain.tld/%1/static/$2 [L]

but you can easily see that it’s something you should be aware of when the conditions are more variegate.

Domainkeys/Dkim with Postfix


If you want to use postfix to use domainkeys or dkim you can do it using dkimproxy

In this setup, we only want that outgoing mail are signed. As we known, yahoo and gmail uses it with spam checks.

First, change your from postfix file
submission inet n – y – – smtpd
-o smtpd_etrn_restrictions=reject
-o content_filter=dksign:[]:10027
-o receive_override_options=no_address_mappings
-o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_mynetworks,reject

// put this in the same file, for example, at bottom is a good place
dksign unix – – n – 10 smtp
-o smtp_send_xforward_command=yes
-o smtp_discard_ehlo_keywords=8bitmime,starttls inet n – n – 10 smtpd
-o content_filter=
-o receive_override_options=no_unknown_recipient_checks,no_header_body_checks
-o smtpd_helo_restrictions=
-o smtpd_client_restrictions=
-o smtpd_sender_restrictions=
-o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_mynetworks,reject

Now, is time to setup dkimproxy, since we are only interested in outgoin mail, we use dkimproxy.out instead, please, use devel version, at moment, stable version can’t sign both signatures at the same time. Tested using dkimproxy-1.0beta1.tar.gz
This example show how to sing more than one domain.

Create a new file.
# sign both and mail with both a domainkeys and dkim signature (put a new domain for each line) domainkeys(a=rsa-sha1,c=nofws), dkim(a=rsa-sha256,c=relaxed) domainkeys(a=rsa-sha1,c=nofws), dkim(a=rsa-sha1,c=relaxed)

As user root, is time to launch dkimproxy (change your values if necessary), in this case we run dkimproxy with user/group dkim
# groupadd -g 4321 dkim
# useradd -u 4321 -s /bin/false -d /dev/null -g dkim dkim

// launch it as a daemon
# dkimproxy.out –user=dkim –group=dkim –keyfile=/etc/postfix/etc/ssl/domainkeys/private.key –selector=yourselector –sender_map=/etc/postfix/ssl/domainkeys/domainkeyfile –daemonize –pidfile=/var/run/

Of course, it’s very important that you keep you port 25 for ‘normal’ mail and change it to port 587 if you want to use dkimproxy, check your mail client how to do that.

Now, your mail uses domainkeys/dkim headers :)

this is a mail headers example:

DomainKey-Signature: a=rsa-sha1; c=nofws;; h=date:subject:from:to:mime-version:content-type:message-id:content-transfer-encoding; q=dns; s=ireth; b=




DKIM-Signature: v=1; a=rsa-sha256; c=relaxed;; h=


content-transfer-encoding; q=dns/txt; s=myhost1; bh=gbf05R7SXafOIY

pmOvZ6JHiCsUiIu94mbMnHdz31av0=; b=jh8AB9KJUF2yarL9etKNcdCsICPssS





This setup assumes that you have created you private/public cryptographic keys, also you have configured your dns, if not, then check main site for how to do it. (read about openssl)

See you!